Theoretical/Philosophical Foundation in ELT

Posted: November 23, 2008 in Untukmu Guruku
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Theoretical/Philosophical Foundation in ELT
Muchlas Yusak
Widyaiswara

DEPARTEMEN PENDIDIKAN NASIONAL
DIREKTORAT JENDERAL PENINGKATAN MUTU PENDIDIK DAN TENAGA KEPENDIDIKAN
LEMBANGA PENJAMIN MUTU PENDIDIKAN (LPMP) JAWA TENGAH
2006

PERFORMATIVE
the code as code – an important part of becoming literate
simply a matter of acquiring:
those skills that allow a written message to be decoded into speech in order to ascertain its meaning
those skills that allow a spoken message to be encoded in writing, according to the conventions of letter formation, spelling and punctuation.
‘breaking the code’ of knowing the relationship between spoken and written symbols.
FUNCTIONAL
emphasises the uses that are made of literacy in interpersonal communication
is able to as a member of that particular society to cope with the demands of everyday life that involve written language.
reading a popular newspaper,
writing a job application,
following procedural instructions
the dividing line between literacy and illiteracy
INFORMATIONAL
focuses on the role that literacy plays in the communication of knowledge, particularly discipline-based knowledge
the curricular emphasis on reading and writing – but particularly reading
the student’s use for accessing the accumulated knowledge in order to construct a meaning which reciprocate the intention of the writer
‘being a text participant’ (able to ‘comprehend’ the text)
EPISTEMIC
to have available ways of acting upon and transforming knowledge and experience that are in general unavailable to those who have never learned to read and write
the aesthetic aspect of language as art (literature, poetry)

The Context of Culture
The attitudes, values and shared experiences of any group of people living in the one culture.

Culturally evolved expectations of ways of behaving

Culturally evolved ways of getting things done or of achieving common goals (genre)
buying and selling goods
directing someone to the bank
recounting recent events
arguing a point of view
Register
Field: the social activity taking place.
(football, cooking, stamp collecting, studying history, economics)

Tenor: the relationship between participants.
Power (equal or unequal status)
Contact (how often you have contact with the person to whom you are speaking or writing)
Affect (attitudes and feelings towards topics and participants)
Register … continued
Mode: the channel of linguistic communication.
Distance in space and distance in time between speaker/listener and reader/writer
Distance between text and the events being referred to, such as listening to cooking demonstration on TV; relating the TV demonstration to a friend; reading a recipe.

DISCOURSE COMPETENCE
It concerns the selection, sequencing, and arrangement of words, structures and utterances to achieve a unified spoken or written text.

The intersection of the lexicogrammar with the signals of the communicative intent and sociocultural context to express attitudes and messages, and to create texts.

Sub-areas that contribute to discourse competence: cohesion, deixis, coherence, genre structure, and the conversational structure inherent to the turn-taking system in conversation.
Components of Discourse Competence
COHESION
Reference (anaphora, cataphora)
Substitution/ellipsis
Conjunction
Lexical chains (related to content schemata), parallel structure
DEIXIS
Personal (pronouns)
Spatial (here, there; this, that)
Temporal (now, then; before, after)
Textual (the following chart; the example above)
Components of Discourse Competence … cont.
COHERENCE
Organized expression and interpretation of content and purpose (content schemata)
Thematization and staging (theme-rheme development)
Management of old and new information
Propositional structures and their organizational sequences
temporal, spatial, cause-effect, condition-result, etc.
Temporal continuity/shift (sequence of tenses)
GENRE/GENERIC STRUCTURE (formal schemata)
Narrative, interview, service encounter, research report, sermon, etc.
Components of Discourse Competence … cont.
CONVERSTAIONAL STRUCTURE (inherent to the turn-taking system in conversation but may extend to a variety of oral genres)
How to perform openings & reopenings
Topic establishment & change
How to hold & relinquish the floor
How to interrupt
How to collaborate & backchannel
How to do preclosings & closings
Adjacency pairs (related to actional competence)
First and second pair parts (knowing preferred and dispreferred responses)

LINGUISTIC COMPETENCE
comprises the basic elements of communication:
sentence patterns and types,
the constituent structure,
the morphological inflection, and
the lexical resources, as well as
the phonological and orthographic systems needed to realize communication as speech or writing.
Components of Linguistic Competence
SYNTAX
Constituent/phrase structure
Word order (cannonical and marked)
Sentence types
statements, negatives, questions, imperatives, exclamations
Special constructions
existentials (there + BE …)
clefts (It’s X that/who …; What + sub. + verb + BE)
question tags, etc.
Modifiers/intensifiers
quantifiers, comparing and equating
Coordination (and, or, etc.) and correlation (both X and Y; either X or Y)
Subordinations (e.g. adverbial clauses, conditionals)
Embedding
noun clauses, relative clauses (e.g. restrictive and non-restrictive)
reported speech
Components of Linguistic Competence … cont.
MORPHOLOGY
Parts of speech
Inflections (e.g. agreement and concord)
Derivational processes (productive ones)
compounding, affixation, conversion/incorporation
LEXICON
Words
content words (Ns, Vs, ADJs)
function words (pronouns, prepositions, verbal auxiliaries, etc)
Routines
word-like fixed phrases (e.g. of course, all of a sudden)
formulaic and semi-formulaic chunks (e.g. how do you do?)
Collocations
V-Obj (e.g. spend money), Adv.Adj (e.g. mutually intelligible), Adj.N (e.g. tall building)
Idioms (e.g. kick the bucket)
Components of Linguistic Competence … cont.
PHONOLOGY (for pronunciation)
Segmentals
vowels, consonants, syllable types, sandhi variation (changes and reductions between adjacent sounds in the stream of speech)
Suprasegmentals
prominence, stress, intonation, rhythm
ORTHOGRAPHY (for spelling)
Letters (if writing system is alphabetic)
Phoneme-grapheme correspondences
Rules of spelling
Conventions for mechanics and punctuation
ACTIONAL COMPETENCE
competence in conveying and understanding communicative intent, that is, matching actional intent with linguistic form based on the knowledge of an inventory of verbal schemata that carry illocutionary force (speech acts and speech act sets).
Components of Actional Competence (for oral language)
KNOWLEDGE OF LANGUAGE FUNCTIONS
INTERPERSONAL EXCHANGE
Greeting and leave taking
Making introductions, identifying oneself
Extending, accepting and declining invitations and offers
Making and breaking agreements
Complementing and congratulating
Reacting to interlocutor’s speech
Showing attention, interest, surprise, sympathy, happiness, disbelief, disappointment
INFORMATION
Asking for and giving information
Reporting (describing and narrating)
Remembering
Explaining and discussing
Components of Actional Competence … cont.
OPINIONS
Expressing and finding out about opinions and attitudes
Agreeing and disagreeing
Approving and disapproving
Showing satisfaction and dissatisfaction
FEELINGS
Expressing and finding out about feelings
love, happiness, sadness, pleasure, anxiety, anger, embarrassment, pain, relief, fear
annoyance, surprise, etc.
SUASION
Suggesting, requesting and instructing
Giving orders, advising and warning
Persuading, encouraging and discouraging
Asking for, granting and withholding permission
Components of Actional Competence … cont.
PROBLEMS
Complaining and criticizing
Blaming and accusing
Admitting and denying
Regretting
Apologizing and forgiving
FUTURE SCENARIOS
Expressing and finding out about wishes, hopes, and desires
Expressing and eliciting plans, goals, and intentions
Promising
Predicting and speculating
Discussing possibilities and capabilities of doing something

KNOWLEDGE OF SPEECH ACT SETS

(Note: for written language – rhetorical competence)
SOCIOCULTURAL COMPETENCE
the speaker’s knowledge of how to express messages appropriately within the overall social & cultural context of communication, in accordance with the pragmatic factors related to variation in language use.
Components of Sociocultural Competence
SOCIAL CONTEXTUAL FACTORS
Participant variables
age, gender, office and status, social distance, relations (power and affective)
Situational variables
time, place, social situation

STYLISTIC APPROPRIATENESS FACTORS
Politeness conventions and strategies
Stylistic variation
degrees of formality
field-specific registers
Components of Sociocultural Competence … cont.
CULTURAL FACTORS
Sociocultural background knowledge of the target language community
Living conditions (way of living, living standards); social and institutional structure; social conventions and rituals; major values, beliefs, and norms; taboo topics; historical background; cultural aspects including literature and arts
Awareness of major dialect or regional differences
Cross-cultural awareness
differences; similarities; strategies for cross-cultural communication
Components of Sociocultural Competence … cont.
NON-VERBAL COMMUNICATIVE FACTORS
Kinesic factors (body language)
discourse controlling behaviors (non-verbal turn-taking signals)
backchannel behaviors
Affective markers (facial expressions), gestures, eye contact
Proxemic factors (use of space)
Haptic factors (touching)
Paralinguistic factors
acoustical sounds, nonvocal noises
Silence
STRATEGIC COMPETENCE
It is knowledge of communication strategies and how to use them.
Communication strategies are:
are verbal plans used by speakers to overcome problems in the planning and execution stages of reaching a communicative goal; e.g. avoiding trouble spots or compensating for not knowing a vocabulary item. (Psycholinguistic perspective)
involve appeals for help as well as other cooperative problem-solving behaviors which occur after some problem has surfaced during the course of communication, that is, various types of negotiation of meaning and repair mechanisms. (Interactional perspective)
are means of keeping the communication channel open in the face of communication difficulties, and playing for time to think and to make (alternative) speech plans. (communication continuity/maintenance perspective)
Components of Strategic Competence
AVOIDANCE or REDUCTION STRATEGIES
Message replacement
Topic avoidance
Message abandonment
ACHIEVEMENT or COMPENSATORY STRATEGIES
Circumlocution (e.g., the thing you open bottles with for corkscrew)
Approximation (e.g., fish for carp)
All-purpose words (e.g., thingy, thingamajic)
Non-linguistic means (mime, pointing, gestures, drawing pictures)
Restructuring (e.g., The bus was very … there were a lot of people on it)
Word-coinage (e.g., vegetarianist)
Literal translation from L1
Foreignizing (e.g., L1 word with L2 pronunciation)
Code switching to L1 or L3
Retrieval (e.g. bro … bron … bronze)
Components of Strategic Competence … cont.
STALLING or TIME GAINING STRATEGIES
Fillers, hesitation devices and gambits (e.g., well, actually …, where was I …?)
Self and other-repetition
SELF-MONITORING STRATEGIES
Self-initiated repair (e.g., I mean …)
Self-rephrasing (over-elaboration) (e.g., This is for students … pupils … when you’re at school …)
INTERACTIONAL STRATEGIES
Appeals for help
direct (e.g., What do you call … ?)
indirect (e.g., I don’t know the word in English … or puzzled expressions)
Meaning negotiation strategies
Indicators of non/mis-understanding
requests
repetition requests (e.g., Pardon? or Could you say that again please?)
clarification requests (e.g., What do you mean by …?)
confirmation requests (e.g., Did you say …?)
Components of Strategic Competence … cont.
Expressions of non-understanding
Verbal (e.g., Sorry, I’m not sure I understand …)
Non-verbal (e.g., raised eyebrows, blank look)
Interpretative summary (e.g., You mean …?/So what you’re saying is …?)
Responses
repetition, rephrasing, expansion, reduction, confirmation, rejection, repair
Comprehension checks
whether the interlocutor can follow you (e.g., Am I making sense?)
whether what you said was correct or grammatical (e.g., Can I/you say that?)
whether the interlocutor is listening (e.g., on the phone: Are you still there?)
whether the interlocutor can hear you
Spoken and Written Language
Spoken and Written Continuum
Most Spoken
The term ‘most spoken’ refers to language interactions where language most closely accompanies action, and where there is the least physical distance between participants.
Examples of ‘most spoken’ texts include the language that accompanies tennis matches, basketball games, shared games, construction of buildings, etc.
Most Written
The term ‘most written’ refers to language texts where distance from action is greatest and where distance between participants is maximal.
Examples of ‘most written’ texts include abstract reflections on causes and effects of distant events, such as history or economics, theoretical arguments and where an author writes for an unknown future audience.

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